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An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.Following several local graded depolarizations of the membrane potential, the threshold of excitation is reached, voltage-gated sodium channels are activated, which leads to an influx of Na ions.

The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors embedded on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.

There are two families of receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.

Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.

Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.

There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters.

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